You are invited to contribute to the Special Issue "Towards 3R (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) Approaches: Bioengineering Tools and Technologies as Advanced Alternatives to Animal Testing", published in Bioengineering (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/bioengineering), an open access journal on the science and technology of bioengineering published by MDPI.
This Special Issue wants to highlight new and advanced bioengineering tools and technologies for developing better and more predictive alternative methods, whose integrated application could lead to reduction, refinement, and even replacement (3R) of animal use for scientific purposes and in pre-clinical research, from basic biomedical research and tissue engineering studies to drug testing and toxicological screening. In particular, papers addressing the following topics are welcome:
· 3D in vitro models of cells/tissues/organs
· Biomimetic bioreactors, microfluidics, and organ-on-chips
· Sensors and monitoring devices for 3D in vitro cultures
· Test bench technologies
· In silico approaches
For more details please visit the website https://www.mdpi.com/journal/bioengineering/special_issues/3R_bioengineering
The deadline for manuscript submission is 31 December 2021.